Gall Stones Treatment is discussed and major issues pertaining to Gall Stone is discussed herewith.
Q. What is Gallbladder? What is the function of it?
Gall bladder is a pear shaped pouch which is located under the liver. Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile. Gall bladder also secretes mucus .The gallbladder serves as a reservoir for bile while it’s not being used for digestion. The bile helps the digestive process by breaking up fats. It also drains waste products from the liver into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.
Q. What are Gall Stones and What are the types of Gall Stones?
Gallstones are generally small, hard deposits inside the gallbladder that are generally formed when stored bile crystallizes. Gallstones range in size. They can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as an apricot.
The three most common types of gall stones are:
- Cholesterol gallstones
- Pigment gallstones
- Mixed stones
Cholesterol gallstones are associated with female sex. Other risk factors include the following:
• Gallbladder stasis
Cholesterol gallstones are more common in women who have experienced multiple pregnancies. A major contributing factor is thought to be the high progesterone levels of pregnancy.
Other causes of gallbladder stasis associated with increased risk of gallstones include high spinal cord injuries, prolonged fasting with total parenteral nutrition, and rapid weight loss associated with severe caloric and fat restriction (eg, diet, gastric bypass surgery).
A number of medications are associated with the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Estrogens administered for contraception or for the treatment of prostate cancer increase the risk of cholesterol.
Clofibrate and other fibrate hypolipidemic drugs increase hepatic elimination of cholesterol via biliary secretion and appear to increase the risk of cholesterol gallstones. Somatostatin analogues appear to predispose to gallstones by decreasing gall bladder emptying.
Black and brown pigment gallstones
Black pigment … Continue Reading ››
WHAT IS HERNIA
Laparoscopic Hernia is a way of treating Hernia with least risk. A hernia is the protrusion of a viscus or part of it through an abnormal opening in the wall by which it is normally contained.
CLASSIFICATION OF HERNIA
Hernias can be broadly classified as internal or external.
External hernias can occur spontaneously as a result of congenital defect or following any surgical intervention when they are called incisional hernias.
Depending upon the site of external hernia they are classified as
- Inguinal hernia which can be indirect or direct
- Femoral hernia
- Spigelian hernia
- Lumbar hernia
- Obturator hernia
- Perineal hernias
- Umbilical hernia
- Epigastric hernia Approximately 75% of all hernias are inguinal; of these, 50% are indirect (male-to-female ratio, 7:1), with a right-side predominance, and 25% are direct. About 10% of hernias are incisional or ventral
ETIOLOGY OF HERNIA:
- The etiology of most hernias can be explained on the basis of congenital defect in the body wall. However, any condition that increases the pressure in the intra-abdominal cavity may contribute to the formation of a hernia which includes the following:
- Only 3-5% of hernias are femoral
- About 14% of hernias are umbilical
- Internal hernias mostly occur after abdominal surgical intervention.
- Marked obesity
- Heavy lifting
- Straining with defecation or urination
- Peritoneal dialysis
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
PRESENTATION OF HERNIA:
The typical presentation of an asymptomatic hernia is as follows:
- Swelling or fullness at the hernial site with aching or dragging sensation
- Enlargement of the swelling with increasing intra-abdominal pressure which can result from coughing or straining.
LAPAROSCOPIC HERNIA TREATMENT:
Surgery is the only definitive treatment for the management of hernia and it is mandatory in almost all hernias because of complications which can happen in any case of untreated hernia.
Hernia surgery can be done by Open … Continue Reading ››