Gall Bladder Stones
The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ in the form of the small pouch which lies just underneath the liver. The gallbladder is 4 inches long.
It stores a chemical substance called bile which is secreted by the liver and released into the intestine during digestion.
Bile is yellowish liquid and helps the body in digesting and absorbing various nutrients and fat-soluble vitamins.
When an excessive amount of cholesterol, bile pigments, and calcium salts are deposited, a crystal-like structure is formed which are known as gallstones.
This condition is called the gallbladder stone. It causes pain and blocks the bile duct.
Types of Gallbladder Stone
There are two types of gallbladder stone:
Cholesterol stones: Cholesterol stones occur in almost 80% of the patients suffering from gallbladder stones. The color of these stones is yellow-green.
Excessive concentration of supersaturated bile is responsible for the formation of the yellow cholesterol stones.
Cholesterol stones lead to increase secretion of glycoprotein, increased absorption of fluid, and infection. Stasis also contributes to the formation of microscopic stones.
Pigment stones: Pigment stones consist of insoluble bilirubin pigment polymer, calcium phosphate salts, carbonate salts, and other anions.
The color of this stone is dark or brown and these stones are smaller in size. Surgery is the only treatment for these stones.
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Gallbladder Stones Causes
There are several causes of gallbladder including;
- Weight: Weight is a major cause of formation of gall stone. In an overweight person, the level of cholesterol is increased and it gets hardens and forms gall stone.
- Problems in the gallbladder: When the gallbladder is not working properly, it does not get fully emptied. As a result, there is a deposition of supersaturated bile in the gallbladder which leads to the formation of gall stone.
- Too much cholesterol in bile: When too much cholesterol is present in bile it leads to the formation of yellowish stone.
- Too much bilirubin in bile: When the concentration of bilirubin increases in bile because of various reasons such as biliary tract infection, or blood disorder then the risk of gallbladder stone is increased. The gall stones are also formed due to the presence of the other substance in the gallbladder.
- Unhealthy Diet: Unhealthy diet is one of the major causes of formation of gall stone. High fatty meals and dairy food made up whole milk such as butter, yogurt, cheese may also lead to gallstones.
- Genetic disorder: In some cases, a genetic disorder also causes gall stone because of lithogenic polymorphisms in several genes.
In most cases, gall stones do not produce any symptoms. but when any blockage occurs in the duct, patients experience following sign and symptoms;
- Yellowish color of skin
- Severe pain in the upper right abdomen
- Nausea and vomiting
- Gas formation
- Fever and chills
- Excessive sweating
- Dark color urine and pale stool.
The abdominal pain in the gallbladder, which is called a gallstone stone attack, gets increased due to high fatty diets. Some patients do not experience any pain or other symptoms because of gall stones. These gall stones are called as silent stones.
There are several risk factors for gallbladder stone. They are following;
- Obesity: An obese person has a high risk for gallbladder stone due to an increased level of cholesterol in obesity.
- Empty stomach: If the person remains an empty stomach for a long time, the capacity of gallbladder for shrinking and expanding which may result in gall stone formation.
- Diabetes: Diabetic patients have a high level of triglycerides (a type of blood fat). This may increase the risk of gallbladder stone formation.
- Cholesterol-lowering medications: Certain cholesterol-lowering medication boosts the amount of cholesterol in bile and may lead to the formation of gall stone.
Complications Caused by Stones
- Inflammation in the gallbladder: When bile duct becomes permanently blocked then the level of bile increases in the gallbladder. This condition can cause infection and inflammation in the gallbladder. The condition of the inflamed gallbladder is also known as acute cholecystitis.
- Jaundice: When gallstone passes into the bile duct, the flow of bile gets blocked leading to jaundice.
- Cancer of gallbladder: Gallbladder is a rare and serious complication of gallstone.
- Acute pancreatitis: Gallstone moves from the gallbladder and blocks the duct of the pancreas. The blockage of duct cause inflammation in the pancreas.
How Are Gallstones Diagnosed?
- Blood tests: Blood tests help in determining the symptoms of gallstone such as jaundice, pancreatitis and other complication which can be caused by a gallstone.
- Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as abdominal ultrasound and computerized tomography are used for creating an image of the gallbladder. This high-resolution imaging helps in diagnosing gallstone.
- ERCP: ERCP is used to determine the location of gallstone. In this test, a special dye is used to view the bile duct.
Gallbladder Stone Treatment in Delhi
- Surgery: Surgeon removes gallbladder with the process known as a cholecystectomy. That procedure performed in two ways;
- Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: This is done as outpatient surgery. The patients do not have to stay in the hospital for a long time and they can resume their physical activity after the one week of surgery.
- Open cholecystectomy: The procedure is performed when the gallbladder becomes inflamed and infected. Open cholecystectomy is also performed when the Laparoscopic surgery fails to provide desired results. The patient has to stay in the hospital for a few days and can resume their activities after one month of the surgery.
- Shock wave lithotripsy: Although rarely used in the treatment of gall stones due to the higher incidence of recurrence, shock wave lithotripsy is effective in some cases.
- Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): When the stone is present in the bile duct, ERCP technique is used for the removal of stone.
- Medications: In cases of small gall stones, the doctor may sometimes prescribe medications such as chenodiol and ursodiol. That medicine helps in dissolving stones. If effective, it is the best non-invasive method for gall stones. The process may take a little longer for dissolving gall stones. These drugs are also used in patients who are at high risk of surgical complications.
Pre-Surgery and Post-Surgery Instructions
- Drink prescription solution: Doctors prescribes a solution for drinking. The solution is used to flush out the intestine,
- Do not eat before surgery: Avoid eating a few hours before surgery. You can take a sip of the water with the medicines.
- Ask before taking any medicine and supplement: Do not take medication without a prescription. The patient may take medications after taking a consultation with the surgeon.
- Medications: Various medications are prescribed after surgery. These may include antibiotics and pain management medications.
- Physical activity: The patient may take short walks two or three times a day. To feel comfortable, medications should be taken as prescribed. You can continue to use stairs as long as you do not feel tired.
- Driving: You should not drive until you have visited the doctors at least once after your surgery.
- Follow-up: The first follow-up visit should be 1 week after surgery and the second visit may be in 3 months after surgery. Do have a visit in between if you feel uncomfortable.
Gallbladder Stone Treatment Center in Delhi NCR
The patient should get their gall stone treated at the hospital which has high success rates, has access to modern and advanced technical procedures and availability of best doctors with advanced degree and experience in treating gall stone disease.
SCI is one of the best hospitals in Delhi-NCR for treating gall stones. Apart from advanced technology, modern laparoscopic surgery, experienced doctors and paramedical staff, the SCI hospital has world-class pre- and post-surgical caring facilities.
With a combined experience of more than 25 years, Dr. Arvind Kumar and Dr. Asif Umar are expert in performing advanced laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
At SCI hospital, the laparoscopy is done through minimal access surgery which has various advantages such as minimal tissues damage, reduced bleeding, fast recovery and minimum scarring.