Hypospadias is the genital birth defect of the penis where the urinary opening is not at the correct location of the penis.

In hypospadias the opening of the urethra is under side of the penis instead of being at the tip. In most cases the foreskin is also underdeveloped and does not wrap completely around the penis, leaving the underside of the glans penis uncovered.

In Epispadias, the urethral opening is on the upper side of the penis.


Hypospadias is usually diagnosed in the newborn nursery by the characteristic appearance of the penis.

The urinary opening (“meatus”) is lower than normal, and most boys have only partial development of the foreskin, lacking the normal covering for the glans on the underside.

The abnormal “hooded” foreskin calls attention to the condition. However, not all newborns with partial foreskin development have hypospadias, as some have a normal urinary opening with a hooded foreskin, which is called “chordee without hypospadias”.

Megameatus with intact prepuce (MIP) variant of hypospadias occur when the foreskin is normal and there is a concealed hypospadias.

The condition is discovered during newborn circumcision or later in childhood when the foreskin begins to retract. A newborn with normal-appearing foreskin and a straight penis who is discovered to have hypospadias after a circumcision was started can have circumcision completed without worry for jeopardizing future hypospadias repair.

Hypospadias discovered after a circumcision is almost never a result of injury during the circumcision.


The exact cause of hypospadias is unknown. There are many factors believed to be involved in its development. Genetics, the environment and hormones may be factors that influence the development of this structural difference.


Surgical correction of Hypospadias is performed in the first year of life as healing is faster and formation of scar tissue is much diminished. The procedure for surgical repair of Hypospadias is performed under general anesthesia in a hospital setting. Several different techniques are used for the surgical correction of Hypospadias and Epispadias. The basic goals of all of these techniques is to:

  • Straighten the penis.
  • Extend the urethra so that it opens on the tip of the penis and reconstruct the skin around the urethral opening.
  • A simple operation or multiple surgeries may be required to repair Hypospadias. Your child will stay in the hospital for 2 days after the Hypospadias surgery.
  • Right age for Hypospadias repair Surgery is between 2 to 3 years from birth.
  • Hypospadias repair surgery should be done by experience reconstructive urologist.
  • The first stage hypospadias repair surgery is very important to achieve maximum success.

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