What is Male Infertility?

Male infertility is any health issue in a man that lowers the chances of his female partner getting pregnant. There are many causes for infertility in men and women and in a third of these cases, the problem is with the male partner. This is most commonly due to problems with sperm production and/or with sperm delivery. The man’s body makes tiny cells called sperm. During sex, ejaculation normally delivers the sperm into the woman’s body.

The male reproductive system makes, stores, and transports sperm. Chemicals in your body called hormones control this. Sperm and male sex hormone (testosterone) are made in the 2 testicles. The testicles are in the scrotum, a sac of skin below the penis. When the sperm leave the testicles, they go into a tube behind each testicle. This tube is called the epididymis.

Just before ejaculation, the sperm go from the epididymis into another set of tubes. These tubes are called the vas deferens. Each vas deferens leads from the epididymis to behind your bladder in the pelvis. There each vas deferens joins the ejaculatory duct from the seminal vesicle. When you ejaculate, the sperm mix with fluid from the prostate and seminal vesicles. This forms semen. Semen then travels through the urethra and out of the penis.

Male fertility depends on your body making normal sperm and delivering them. The sperm go into the female partner’s vagina. The sperm travel through her cervix into her uterus to her fallopian tubes. There, if a sperm and egg meet, fertilization happens.

What are the causes of male infertility?

Various causes are attributed to developing male infertility. These causes are generally classified into structure anomalies which prevent the traveling of sperms or formation anomalies in which either the sperms are formed in less number or even if they are formed, they are of poor quality. Following are some of the causes of male infertility:

  • Obstruction
  •  Varicococele (40% Prevalences) in Male Infertility
  •  Ejacculatory duct obstruction
  •  Infections
  •  Hormonal Imbllance
  •  Affects sperm production
  •  Occur due to chromosomal


As there are various reasons for male infertility, thus a comprehensive diagnosis of the patient is done to accurately diagnose the reason for male infertility. Some of the techniques that may help in the diagnosis of male infertility are:

  • General health evaluation
  • Semen analysis
  • Hormonal study
  • Genetic analysis
  • Imaging techniques
  • Biopsy
  • Post-ejaculation urinalysis


Most of the problems related to male infertility can be treated either with medications or surgery. In rare cases, the treatment does not work and the couples are not able to conceive. In such cases, the couple may decide to use donor sperm or to adopt a child.

Following are the treatment options for male infertility:

Hormone Replacement Therapy

Varicococele Surgery:
Varicococele Surgery is generally performed under general spinal anaesthesia. The surgeon makes incision above the scrotum and cuts through layers of tissue to expose the veins. Post-surgical pain is normally minimal, and the individual can soon return to normal activities.

microTESE Surgery:
Microscopic testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is a surgical procedure used to obtain sperm from the testes when there is insufficient sperm in the ejaculate. Sperm extracted through this procedure can be used to conceive a baby using IVF or ICSI. TESE is used in the case of azoospermia, a condition in which viable sperm are not available in the ejaculate.

Testicular biopsy is done to extract tissue from the testis to determine if normal sperms production is present or absent if positive, patient advice for